Immaculate Immigrant 2
Virgin of Guadalupe



The Constellations in the Sky on December 12, 1531



Virgin Mary Guadalupe Constellations Janet BarberDr. Juan Homero Hernández Illescas, medical doctor and amateur astronomer, discovered that the stars on the cloak of the Virgin of Guadalupe represent the constellations appearing in the winter-morning solstice in 1531 at the moment of the appearance of the image on the cloak in Bishop Zumárraga's office, "with admirable exactness," even though the constellations are reversed. Hernández attributes the reversal and "condensing" of the constellations to the phenomenon of anamorphosis, "making a semi-spherical reality intelligible on a flat plane." Dr. Janet Barber, I.H.M., clarifies,

The Image's constellations are really spread over the whole dome of the sky . . . But when such an image is reflected on a properly curved mirror to condense and straighten things out, of course the image ends up facing in the other direction! I believe this finally answers the question of why the constellations are backwards on her Image . . . Many, many galaxies and star clusters can be interpolated on the Image, just as constellations can.


Guadalupe's cloak has forty-six stars: twenty-two on her right side and twenty-four on her left side, matching the constellations in the sky present on December 12, 1531.

Virgin Mary Guadalupe Father Xavier EscaladaInfrared Photography of the Cloak/Tilma

In 1979, Jody Brant Smith, philosophy professor, and Dr. Philip Serna Callahan, entomologist-biophysicist, photographer and artist, examined the cloak and found no brushstrokes, undersketch or sizing of any type on the original image. Based on Callahan's infrared technical analysis and techniques,

The most notable feature of the robe is its remarkable luminosity . . . It appears to barely lie on the surface of the weave. The pink pigment appears to be inexplicable . . . infrared photographs prove beyond doubt that the blue of the mantle and rose of the robe are original and have never been touched up or painted over.


Callahan opines that ". . . after more than four centuries, there is no fading or cracking of the original image [and] the brightness of the turquoise and rose colors [are] . . . bright enough to have been laid on last week."

In 2001, the late Reverend Mario Rojas Sánchez published the results of his own studies on the tilma, without its protective frame. He witnessed the luminous aureole surrounding her. The radiating light "emanates from her continuously." And when the cloak is photographed, Rojas Sánchez explains, "The brilliance and changing colors of the image impede an exact photo or film of the image. [And the light between the gold rays] becomes more intense closest to her image and reaches the greatest intensity at the level of her womb."

It is here that a four-petalled flower appears, the only four-petalled flower on her tunic - the nahui ollin. According to Janet Barber,

It's called the nahui ollin, which was the name of the day the Aztecs or Nahuas thought the sun was born on, and the day the sun would die. That's why it's called la flor solar, the solar flower, the sun flower. This symbol represented the entire known cosmos for them. It represented both space and time, which they regarded as inextricably just one thing, anticipating Einstein!


Among its many meanings, the nahui ollin symbolizes the presence of God, completeness, and the four directions of the universe.

The tilma itself is made of two pieces of maguey fiber cloth which has a life span of about 20-40 years at most, held together by a maguey thread and is typical of the cloaks used by the Nahuas in the 15th and 16th centuries called "ayates." The texture is coarse, somewhat like burlap, and the color like unbleached linen. Her figure is four feet eight inches tall, from head to toe.

In 1936, Richard Kuhn, German Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry, analyzed red and yellow fibers from the tilma and determined the materials used to produce what resembled color were unknown to science.

In 1929, photographer Alfonso Marcué González discovered a reflection of a man in the Virgin's eyes while examining a photographic negative of the tilma. In 1951, Carlos Salinas Chávez witnessed the same reflection. In 1956, Dr. Javier J. Torroella Bueno discovered three reflections in the Virgin's eyes, including the distortion of the figures caused by the curvature of the cornea. When Torroella trained the ophthalmoscope's light on the Virgin's eyes, they showed depth and became filled with light. In 1958, Dr. Rafael Torija Lavoignet confirmed Torroella's findings. By 1976, some twenty doctors had confirmed, orally and in writing, the "unexplicable presence" of a man with a beard in the cornea and lenses of the Virgin's eyes.

In 1977, Dr. José Aste Tonsmann, a systems engineer from Cornell University declared the image to be supernatural. He photographed the image and marked it off into one-millimeter squares and then with a computer amplified each square 2,500 times and confirmed the existence of the Purkinje-Sanson phenomenon in her eyes: When a person sees an object at a fairly close range, that object is reflected in each eye in three different places. In the iris of the left eye, at least four figures could be seen. Based on his analysis and past portraits of Juan Diego, Tonsmann wrote, "I believe, without fear of error that this person is Juan Diego."

Recently on July 31, 1997, Father Xavier Escalada, S.J., submitted an extraordinary evidenciary document discovered in a private library in 1995. It has been named "Codex 1548" or "Codex Escalada." The codex fragment painted on deer skin, and measuring approximately 20 by 13.2 centimeters, has been analyzed more than any other Mexican codex in existence. After professionals of diverse disciplines carefully examined the codex, they unanimously recommended the most exhaustive scientific investigation possible to determine the authenticity and age of the document, focusing on its composition, content of the indigenous writing, inks used, date of execution, and the analysis of the only European signature on the codex, "Fray B. De Sahagún."

He is considered the first ethnographer of the Americas and wrote the monumental Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España with the assistance of indigenous informants.

In order to preserve the integrity of the codex, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was employed. Experts from the Physics Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and the Churubusco Museum Laboratory confirmed that the inks used in Codex 1548 were of natural origin and of the 16th century.

Because of a yellowish patina covering the entire surface, it had been speculated that the codex was free of any tampering. Photographs taken with ultraviolet light confirmed the absence of retouches or modifications.

Center left of Codex 1548 an Indian is kneeling and wearing a cloak knotted over his right shoulder, typical of the sixteenth-century Aztecs. Beneath him are the Nahuatl words: omomoquili cuauhtlactoatzin. He appears to be looking at an image of a woman standing on a moon amidst some clouds. Her cloak is embellished with stars. The art work depicts plants native to the Mexican steppes in the high plateaus. At the upper left, an Indian with a cloak appears looking at an oval-shaped design, like a miniature reproduction of the larger size images. In the bottom right corner another indigenous image is seated and holding a staff of authority. A phonetic-glyph, symbolizing Antonio Valeriano, hovers above his person. Directly beneath him is the name, "Juez Anton Vareliano." It should be noted that the misspelling of Antonio Valeriano and the dates on the Codex, written "154-8" and "15031" are consistent with the difficulty of the Indians learning a new language (Spanish) and numerals (Arabic).

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